by Francesca Eathorne
Blog number four from the Trust’s General Manager Operations and Communications on her first experience of Antarctica.
For Francesca’s previous posts, please see the Antarctic Blog feed.
Now that I have completed AFT (Antarctic Field Training – read that blog here) I can officially head out with Al and Nicola on the conservation team to assist with this season’s monitoring and maintenance programme.
Each season the conservation team inspect the huts and their artefact collections to ensure the buildings remain weathertight and the conservation treatments of the artefacts are holding up in the challenging environment. Alongside some manual tasks like digging out snow at the huts, there are various measurements taken and the artefacts are checked and photographed.
After lunch we plan to head out to Scott’s Discovery Hut. It’s a mild day in Antarctica at only -11 degrees, which is considerably warmer than the previous few days that were hitting around -20 with a hostile wind blowing.
I’ll be assisting Al and Nicola with the various tasks. I’m excited to see the conservation work first-hand. We pack our bags, including our ECW (extreme cold weather) gear as it’s a requirement for us to carry this with us when we travel outside of Scott Base—a good reminder that the conditions can and do change frequently. I put all nine pairs of gloves in my bag as I’m still working out which combinations I like best. I also throw in my She-wee and pee bottle as these are also essentials when venturing off base.
It takes quite a while to pack up everything we need, which includes shovels, a rake, vacuum cleaner, various tools for minor repairs, photography gear, lights and monitoring equipment. Everything is piled into one of the Toyota Landcruisers that you can book to drive off base. After the truck spends half an hour warming up, we are off to Discovery Hut.
Scott’s National Antarctic Discovery Expedition (1901-1904) chose Winter Quarters Bay, located in McMurdo Sound, a small indentation at the end of Hut Point Peninsula on Ross Island, as the site to winter over. Scott’s original idea was to send a small winter party to stay in the hut but he changed his mind and the ship, which was secured to an icefoot in the bay, became home to all 47 expedition members.
I’d visited the hut briefly a few days earlier and I’m keen to get back and have a closer look around. Nicola tells me on the way over that the coldest she has ever felt was while working at Discovery Hut during winter as the wind can whip around Hut Point and curl over the top making working outside almost impossible at times. Luckily today the wind is mild and the temperature feels moderate (am I acclimatising already?).
Our first task is to set up the photography table and lights so Nicola can inspect and photograph various artefacts. The idea is that they can be compared season to season and any signs of deterioration can be quickly spotted and addressed. I’m pleased I can help Nicola out by holding the lights in a useful place as she moves around the huts photographing some items in situ. I’m amazed to find a sack of red onions in one corner of the hut. It’s a partially full bag and the pinkish tinge clearly identifies them as red onions. It’s just incredible to think they have been sitting there for well over a century. Nicola carefully inspects the onions to ensure there are no signs of mould. All is good.
In the meantime, Al has been completing his exterior inspection of the hut and is completing a few minor maintenance tasks. I head up to Vince’s Cross to meet Al. The cross is about 100 metres south-west of the hut and is a memorial to George Vince who sadly died early on the Discovery expedition while attempting to return to the ship during a storm—a poignant reminder of how treacherous this seemingly benign headland is. The wind is slicing across the top of the rocky point and my fingers are freezing within 60 seconds of me removing my outer layer of gloves so I can take some photographs. Down on the sea ice below there are seals with their pups lolling about. When the sea ice has broken out it’s common to see whales spyhopping here. The Hut Point peninsula shoreline is eroding badly, mostly due to the sea ice breaking out early and there being more wave action that is slowly ebbing the land away. One day it will affect Vince’s Cross so the plan is to monitor the erosion closely so that plans can be make to ensure the cross’s safety.
The wind is picking up and I can see why Nicola had her most freezing day at this site. I walk back to the hut and my eyeballs feel like they are freezing solid. I’ll have to swap my sunglasses for my goggles to stop the wind cutting into the side of my face so much. Despite my hands being quickly put back in my gloves (two pairs of them) my fingers are numb. It will be a good ten minutes before they thaw out.
Once I get back to the hut Nicola asks me to complete the annual task of sweeping out the floor of the hut. We decide to do this by hand first. Nicola shows me the scoria that accumulates from visitors’ boots that needs to be cleaned up. It’s not to be confused with the ‘historic’ dust and sediment that has gathered along the walls, between artefacts and in dark corners. This is to be left to add to the atmosphere of the hut. I wear a head torch so I can spot the difference!
Kneeling on the floor seems to be the best way to slowly move around, sweeping gently with my brush and pan. There is a surprising amount of scoria rock around and I sometimes reach into the recesses to pick the little grey stones out. I wish I had remembered to bring my knee pads—now I know why they are in my kit. It’s a good task to keep warm though and I enjoy moving around each space as it gives me a close up look at the artefacts and architecture from a unique perspective.
After a while I decide I need to use my She-wee. One piece of advice I have heard from a number of people is that when you think you need to go, go then. Don’t wait or it suddenly becomes an urgent task; and nothing happens quickly in Antarctica. I ask Al where I’m best to position myself as it’s not within the code of conduct to toilet inside the hut. He advises somewhere out of the wind and away from the various visiting Americans wandering around the site.
I’m feeling confident to use my She-wee and decide that just outside the front door will be the most private spot. I get the She-wee and my pee bottle and sort myself out. I leave one pair of gloves on and work on positioning the She-wee around three layers of pants. It’s a bit of a logistical exercise but I’m thinking it’s good practice ahead of my upcoming camping trip to Cape Evans.
The wind is really howling now and my hands go numb quickly, which makes holding the She-wee and pee bottle simultaneously quite tricky. I really hope no visitors suddenly pop around the corner or they are in for a shock. Then my body just shuts down. It’s no go. Too cold, thanks very much my bladder says. I wait a bit longer willingly myself to just relax but it’s no good.
Al kindly says he will run me down to Mac Town (McMurdo Station), which is just down the road. It’s nice to have a quick break and warm up ahead of the final part of the work programme.
Next up I’m assisting Al with collecting measurements for the hut’s monitoring programme. This is done at strategic points around the hut with Al up a ladder taking readings from the wood to test the hut’s moisture levels. The temperature in the hut is -7 degrees. Somehow knowing this makes me feel cold all of a sudden. It’s more likely that I’ve gotten cold because I haven’t been moving around so much.
Two staff from Antarctica New Zealand pop over to clear the data loggers, which measure temperature and relative humidly. This information helps to establish baseline data and to help the design team understand how the hut’s microclimate is responding to the initial conservation work. Al is pleased the hut is dry and the readings reinforce this. There has only been a little bit of snow ingress this year; again, Al is pleased as the snow mitigation measures put in place last season have been successful.
We are all quite cold now and I’m glad it’s not just me feeling the cold seep into my bones. Apparently, Discovery Hut is always a tough site to work at.
I imagine the men of Scott’s Discovery expedition realising that sleeping in the hut was not going to be possible as it is too cold, and the subsequent parties who used the hut as a staging post (both Scott’s Terra Nova expedition and Shackleton’s Ross Sea Party) and the hardships they endured. Discovery Hut is often described as dark and depressing compared with the other heroic-era huts.
I don’t have anything to compare it to yet but there’s something about it that I really like. Perhaps it’s the sense of hope and possibility the men had about the adventures that lay ahead when they first landed. Before they felt the wind cut through them day after day, before the adversity began.
The men called the hut the Royal Terror Theatre and used it to stage various musicals and plays of the time to entertain each other. I like this perspective on the hut as it conjures up images of camaraderie and laughter amongst the bleak Antarctic landscape.
We pack up quickly and, heads down, battle the wind back to the Toyota. Upon reaching Scott Base we head to the Tatty Flag bar to warm up with a whisky. A few other people join us and soon stories are flying across the bar. I smile to myself as I think about how over 100 years on that same sense of friendship and teamwork is in full force just over the hill at New Zealand’s Scott Base.
by Francesca Eathorne
Blog number three from the Trust’s General Manager Operations and Communications on her first experience of Antarctica.
For Francesca’s previous posts, please see the Antarctic Blog feed.
Before I can join the conservation team properly I have to complete Antarctic Field Training (AFT). AFT is a rite of passage in Antarctic in many ways. It’s a shared experience because everyone who comes to live and work at Scott Base has to do it. It’s survival training that is both theoretical and hands on, culminating in an overnight camping experience.
Given that I’ve never been camping, let alone in extreme conditions, I’m nervous about it but looking forward to learning about what it takes to survive in Antarctica.
We start the day with a theory component but it turns out I’m in the wrong room so I immediately start on the back foot as I have to hoof it down the long corridors to the other end of Base to get to the room I am supposed to be in. Luckily our trainer is relaxed about me being late and I recognise a few friendly faces in the room. There are six of us with only three of us going on the overnight component as the other three are returnees so aren’t required to do that part of the training again.
Our trainer goes over the basic guidelines around safety and talks in depth about frostnip and frostbite, accompanied by some scary looking images. I suddenly realise this is serious stuff. You have to take responsibility for yourself. If you are cold you need to sort it out and not suffer quietly or it can have major consequences.
The next stage is to pack up our tents and sleeping gear. The trainer says that I will take a tent similar to the one I will be camping in at Cape Evans in a week’s time so I can practise putting up the right sort of tent. This sounds like a good idea; I don’t know how much I will be cursing this in a few hours.
We pack our sleeping bag liner with two fat sleeping bags; it all fits together Russian doll style. Then we pack the sleeping bags with our Thermarest mattress into a larger carry bag. I use the ‘punch it in’ style as it’s one of those impossible to fit it all in bags. It was quite satisfying. We are all red and puffing from getting our sleeping kits together.
Next we head downstairs to learn how to use the Primus cookers. Remember I’ve never been camping so this is a new experience for me and I am slightly anxious about burning down the Hillary Field Centre (HFC). A story from a colleague is fresh in my mind; when I asked her about her top tip for a first trip to Antarctica, she quipped “Don’t burn down the HFC!”. She regaled me with a story about leaking too much gas from her Primus during the training and producing a big fireball that even the field trainer was a bit taken aback by. Silently I tell myself that whatever else I do here, do not set anything on fire.
Our trainer is awesome and clearly explains the instructions, and another experienced woman on the team is kind enough to help me through each step. I successfully get the burner going without creating a fire sitaution. I’m quite pleased with myself.
Now we pack our food kits and get our clothing and gear together. We get issued a pee bottle each (and I remember to pack my She-Wee) and we head out to meet our trainer at the Hagglund.
We are transported by Hagglund to Windless Bight, which takes about 10 minutes to drive to from Scott Base. Windless Bight was named by the Winter Journey Party led by Dr Edward Wilson of the British Antarctic Expedition (1910-1913), which encountered no wind in this area. This is ironic because tonight we are expecting 35-40 knot winds on top of the minus twenty something temperatures. It’s considered a rough night for camping. I have nothing to compare it to so I’m not really aware at this stage what it means.
We disembark the Hagglund and are immediately hit with freezing wind. Snow is swirling around and visibility is poor. We can barely see back to Scott Base and another notable landmark, White Island, has disappeared into the cloud. It’s an isolated spot with flags marking the safe zones. We are not to go outside of the marked area; even if a wayward glove or hat blows out there, we leave it alone. The terrain beyond the safe zone is dangerous and pitted with crevasses.
Despite knowing that the field trainer is fully equipped to deal with these conditions, I have a sense that it’s going to be a long and tough night.
First steps are to get the tents out of the Hagglund and work together to put them up. This is a learning experience for me and I do my best to pay attention while stamping my feet to keep the circulation going. I did tell the trainer at the beginning of the session that I know nothing. Well, I’m not sure he is quite prepared for just how little I know!
With great patience (as the wind howled around us) he guides me to work with the two other people on the team to put up the Scott Polar tent. Then we put up a small survival tent as an example of what that looks like if you are caught out and have to activate your survival kit. It’s definitely flimsy looking compared with the sturdy Scott Polar tent, which is based on the early explorers’ tent style – not much about it has changed in over 100 years.
Next it is time to erect my tent. Mine is a polar dome tent, which is what I will be camping in at Cape Evans. I’m convinced this style of tent was designed by an unhappy person with a masochistic streak. It has several different parts that all need to be put together by manipulating small hooks and clips and various poles. This is quite difficult to do when you are wearing two pairs of gloves and have no dexterity. I can’t take my gloves off because the wind is so bitingly cold that I’m seriously worried I’ll end up looking like the photos I saw this morning (and we are under strict instructions to come home with all our fingers, toes and noses).
It takes all four of us to put the tent up as the wind is blowing hard and we can’t risk any of the parts flying off into the unmarked zones. I work slowly but methodically, taking about five times as long as the others to hook my ends together and wriggle the metal through the material. My goggles have fogged up and I’m wheezing with effort. I am determind to do it. The trainer doesn’t say anything but I can tell he knows it’s going to be a long slow haul to get the camp set up.
Finally the tent is pitched and we each dig snow over the snow skirts so that no snow can blow in during the night. I’m lucky to have the tent to myself as I’m the only woman on the team.
The three of us are feeling the physical exertion of setting up the tents. The weather is hammering us and it takes all our effort to walk around camp as more snow is constantly blowing in. I see one of my teammates face plant at one point as he misjudges his footing in the snow. It would be funny at any other time but I’m too tired and cold to laugh (plus I know I’ll do it next).
Next we build a snow kitchen. Again, our skilled trainer draws out with a finger in the snow what it should look like. I don’t think any of us understand but we start digging it out. Once we have dug the first part of the structure the trainer shows us how to build snow bricks so we can make a snow wall. This needs to be high enough so that we can sit behind it and be totally sheltered from the wind. He cuts the bricks with ease stacking them up for us to carry.
He casually says that it will take us a couple of hours to complete this part. Wow – it’s time to see what I’m made of. We take turns carting the snow bricks, digging the snow trench and cutting the snow blocks. No-one talks – not that you could hear anyone over the roar of the wind. When I’m cutting snow blocks the trainer gives me tips on how to do it more efficiently (i.e. I’m not doing it right and my blocks are lopsided).
It’s physically gruelling work and I can’t help thinking about the early explorers and their stories of hardships enduring the unpredictable Antarctic weather as they furthered science and exploration in the world’s most extreme environement. Truly incredible stories and inspiring for me in this moment as I dig deep (literally into a snow bank) to find some energy to keep going.
I’m fit and I’ve trained for this trip over the past few months. But you can’t train to work in these conditions. I find my mind going into a single focus. Pick up brick, walk (don’t fall on the snow), put brick on wall, walk back, pick up another brick, repeat. I think of it like a long deadlift set at the gym with only seconds of recovery on the walk back to pick up another block.
Finally, our trainer is happy with the snow wall and it’s time to get ready to cook our meal. I’m surprised to see it’s nearly 9.00pm. We have been preparing our field camp for over five hours! No wonder I’m feeling it.
Dinner is dehydrated food. I’ve brought my own as I have some food intolerances. I wasn’t hungry at this point but it’s important to hydrate and eat regardless of how you feel so I diligently eat my meal. It’s actually pretty good and feels great to have something hot in me. Along with our meal we have a hot cup of water, which helps warm up our frozen fingers. I had finally worked out the best combination of gloves after a bad start left me with frozen hands. The snow shelter does its job and we are finally out of the relentless wind.
Since it’s a rotten night our trainer advises us to go straight to bed after the meal. It’s about 10.00pm and none of us argue. My two companions head off to share their polar tent and I head to my dome tent.
I’ve already crawled into my tent several times to set it up. I’ve decided the most graceful approach is to go in head first and to exit it feet first. Well, graceful might not be the right word but it’s the only way I can do it without getting tangled. I’m wearing my full ECW (extreme cold weather) kit so it’s awkward pushing myself in through the first part of the tent. I then flop into the tent itself, bringing with me a considerable amount of snow. I don’t care. I’m exhausted.
I sit in my tent gathering my thoughts for a moment. I realise I have no idea of how to best arrange my sleeing gear so I can sleep and keep warm.
I know we are supposed to change our socks into dry ones and place our boot liners between the layers of our sleeping bags. It takes effort to do this when you are tired but it will make things easier in the morning. You also want to put your pee bottle in your sleeping bag so it doesn’t freeze. I manage to use my She-Wee chanting to myself “don’t knock over the pee bottle”. Easy to do as your fingers are frozen and you find yourself clumsily grasping at things as if you are drunk.
Finally it’s time to wedge myself into the first of three sleeping layers. I’ve kept most of my clothes on with the rationale it will be easier to remove layers than try and put more on during the night. Our trainer had advised us to fill our Nalgene bottle with boiling water and put that in our sleeping bag to help us warm up. It is pure luxury pushing that hot bottle against my frozen feet. My toes start to thaw out and the pain is excruitating but the heat from the Nalgene bottle soon makes up for it.
I pull my eye mask on over my head to block out the light (there’s no sun as such but it’s still 24-hour daylight) and settle in. Of course, I have the following either in my sleeping bag with me or in the layers between bags so it’s not very comfortable: socks, my camera, boot liners, pee bottle, water bottle (don’t mix these up!), hat, gloves, mittens, extra jacket, large ECW gloves, plus my watch so I don’t sleep in and wake to find everyone has packed up and is waiting on me.
Somehow I manage to sleep pretty well, waking in the wee hours only a couple of times.
In the morning, I successfully use my She-Wee again and know I will now have to venture to the toilet tent to empty my pee bottle. I’m dreading this but know it’s all a part of camping and I will have to use the toilet tent at Cape Evans so I may as well get used to it.
The toilet tent is a Scott Polar tent so has a small tunnel-like entry to it that you crawl through to get into the main tent. This is not much fun to wriggle into when you are wearing all your clothes. I get stuck half way in with my pee bottle in my hand and I’m staring at a red (poo) bucket and a large container about three quarters full of pee with a funnel in the top, into which I should empty my pee bottle.
I decide I can do this without going fully into the tent; this goes well and I (un)gracefully back myself out. I take some photos so I can remember to write about how much harder this is to do than it looks.
I head over to the snow kitchen for a cup of hot water and to greet the team. Everyone seems to have slept okay despite the wind whipping in most of the night. This morning it’s still overcast but there is no wind and what a difference it makes!
We pack down the camp and destroy the snow kitchen, trampling the block of snow into the ground (this took a lot less time than it did to build it).
We pack the Hagglund and head back to Scott Base. No-one says much on the way back and I think we are all reflecting on our own experiences of Antarctic Field Training.
Upon return we unpack our gear and dry out our sleeping bags and tents. I run into my team leader in the hallway and he asks me how it all went. I have to reply I need some time to process as I’m not sure how to answer.
The weather meant we didn’t have the type of AFT where you stay up telling tales into the wee hours and enjoying a whisky or two; but it was an experience. My first proper night camping in Antarctica and I managed to get through it. I learnt a lot both about the practical skills for surviving on the Ice, should you need to, and that the kindness of people should never be underestimated. From our trainer’s patience with me, to my two teammates helping out and checking in on me, to my colleague Nic thrusting an extra chocolate bar in my bag before I left, all those things added to the experience.
I’m thinking a lot about my Great Uncle Leon who spent 10 seasons on the Ice working on drilling teams. I’ve brought his memoirs with me and I re-read them. I find this piece that makes me think I had it easy on AFT and how tough those people who work to support all the science on the Ice have to be.
“Setting up our first camp in the Taylor Valley, three of us, a geologist, a driller and I had just pitched our eight-man tent, when the weather deteriorated, and for several days we were buffeted by severe gale winds measuring to over 200mph. Then a white-out came in and wind-blown snow drifted against our tent. Unless it was removed, the tent was in danger of collapsing. Taking turns with a rope attached around our waist and the other end anchored, we ventured into the blizzard conditions and with the aid of a small shovel and pick were able to clear the tent”. Leon Oliver.
* * *
I’m grateful I had the opportunity to test myself in crazy conditions. I dug deep and got it done. I might not have enjoyed myself in the traditional sense, but I learnt something about myself and that is gold.
As my sister told me, ‘if you don’t laugh you will cry’ and ‘funny is funny’. Camping out in Antarctica is not something I ever thought I would (or could) do. Already I can look back on AFT with a smile and know I will enjoy retelling this story for years to come.
The Explorer May 2020 introduction by Nigel Watson
The Trust’s objective this season was to position and secure the required conservation equipment on site at Cape Adare to allow the conservation of Borchgrevink’s 1898 British Antarctic Expedition huts to be undertaken.
Despite the ramifications of Covid-19, our conservation team have successfully completed the essential monitoring and maintenance programme at the Ross Island historic huts in November and December 2020, thanks to the support of Antarctica New Zealand, in what has been an extremely challenging year for their operations.